Section A

Conversation 1

M: And now, for the lighter side of the news, Europe is setting an example for the rest of the world when it comes to food waste.
W: That’s right John. This week the Italian government pass legislation that aims to dramatically reduce the amount of food wasted in the country. New laws have been put into place that would make it easier for farms and supermarkets to donate unsold foods to those who are in need.
M: Yes. And in addition to this, businesses would now be rewarded for successful efforts to cut food waste.
W: Italy is not the only country to focus on reducing food waste. Just earlier this year, the European Parliament voted in favor of legislation that would stop grocery giants from unfair trading practices that result in overproduction, thus creating waste.
M: In France, the government has banned supermarkets from throwing away edible foods and imposed harsh penalties on businesses that fail to comply with the regulations.
W: While there is still much progress to be made, other countries could learn a thing or two from the example set by France and Italy. In the United States, up to forty percent of all food goes uneaten. Despite the fact that one in seven American households lacks regular access to good food, one major cause of this problem is the confusion over food expiration labels, which are currently not regulated by the government.
M: All this could change soon. This wave of new laws in Europe will definitely put more pressure on law makers to reduce food waste here. We turn now to a spokesperson from Harvard University’s Food Law and Policy Clinic for more on the story. And now, let’s welcome Prof. Edward Becker to speak to us.

Question 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

1. What does the woman say about the new laws in Italy?
A) They reward businesses that eliminate food waste.
B) They prohibit the sale of foods that have gone stale.
C) They facilitate the donation of unsold foods to the needy.
D) They forbid businesses to produce more foods than needed.
答案:C) They facilitate the donation of unsold foods to the needy.

2. What did the European Parliament do reduce food waste?
A) It imposed penalties on businesses that waste food.
B) It passed a law aiming to stop overproduction.
C) It voted against food import from outside Europe.
D) It prohibited the promotion of bulk food sales.
答案:B) It passed a law aiming to stop overproduction.

3. What has the French government done recently?
A) It has warned its people against possible food shortages.
B) It has penalized businesses that keep overproducing foods.
C) It has started a nationwide campaign against food waste.
D) It has banned supermarkets from dumping edible foods.
答案:D) It has banned supermarkets from dumping edible foods.

4. What is the major cause of food waste in the United States?
A) The confusion over food expiration labels.
B) The surplus resulting from overproduction.
C) Americans’ habit of buying food in bulk.
D) A lack of regulation on food consumption.
答案:A) The confusion over food expiration labels.


Conversation 2

M: Thank you for calling Saks Fifth Avenue department store. How can I be of assistance to you today?
W: Hello. I was in your store this past weekend and bought a few items. Yesterday, my friend told me that the annual anniversary sales had begun. It turned out she bought the same sweater as I did but for a much lower price.
M: Yes. Our anniversary sale started on Monday. We do offer price adjustments within seven days of purchase to ensure our customer satisfaction. You said you did the purchase here this past weekend?
W: Yes. I was shopping in your store last Sunday afternoon.
M: That would definitely fall within the price adjustment window. Do you have an account with us? We can credit your account directly with the difference if you wish. Otherwise we can send a gift card by mail if you prefer.
W: Crediting my account would be wonderful. Thank you. Now that you mention there's a sale going on, I do remember a dress I quite like when I was in the shop on Sunday. Is it on offer as well?
M: Yes, ma'am. All the new arrivals are 15-20% off. In addition to the sale, we're running a promotion for complimentary tailoring if you need it.
W: That's a good news. The dress really caught my eye but I did have some concerns about the length. How long will the alterations take?
M: Our tailoring department guarantees alterations to be completed within five working days. If you like I can set one aside for you. If you're able to come this afternoon, you can give your name to the sale manager and they will be able to assist you.

Question 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

5. What do we learn about Saks department store?
A) It has started a week-long promotion campaign.
B) It has just launched its annual anniversary sales.
C) It offers regular weekend sales all the year round.
D) It specializes in the sale of ladies’ designer dresses.
答案:B) It has just launched its annual anniversary sales.

6. What does the man say Saks department store offers?
A) Price reductions for its frequent customers.
B) Coupons for customers with bulk purchases.
C) Free delivery of purchases for senior customers.
D) Price adjustments within seven days of purchase.
答案:D) Price adjustments within seven days of purchase.

7. What does the woman want the store to do to address the price difference?
A) Mail a gift card to her.
B) Allow her to buy on credit.
C) Credit it to her account.
D) Give her some coupons.
答案:C) Credit it to her account.

8. What is the service Saks department store offers in addition to the promotional sale?
A) Refunding for goods returned.
B) Free installing of appliances.
C) Prolonged goods warranty.
D) Complimentary tailoring.
答案:D) Complimentary tailoring.


Section B

Passage 1

Barbie dolls have a particular look to them. They’re thin, tall, long-legged and virtually unlike any real human being. Although over the years Barbie has had more than 180 different careers-including football coach, sign language teacher, ambassador, president and astronaut–her body shape hasn’t changed much.
Last year Mattel, the company that makes Barbie dolls, added some Barbies to its line that have different skin tones and hair textures. There are now Barbies with one of seven skin tones, 22 eye colours and 24 hair styles to choose from. Last year Mattel also gave Barbie a flat foot, rather than forcing her to be “in heels” all the time like the original Barbie is.
Now they are introducing new Barbies with three slightly different body shapes while the original, tall and thin Barbies will continue to be sold.
In a statement on its website, the company says it wants Barbies to look more like real people, and to give girls everywhere infinitely more ways to spark their imagination and play out their stories.
Although many people say the new Barbies are a step in the right direction, some people say they don’t go far enough. They say that the new body shapes could be even more different from the original, tall, thin Barbies.
Sales of Barbie dolls have been falling “every year since 2012,” according to CBC News.
The toys aren’t in stores yet but they will be sold online at the Barbie website, starting this week, for $9.99.

Q9. What do we know about the original Barbie dolls?
答案: A) They are thin, tall, and unlike real human beings.
A) They are thin, tall, and unlike real human beings.
B) They have more than twenty different hair textures.
C) They have twenty-four different body shapes in total.
D) They represent people from virtually all walks of life.

Q10. Why do some people feel unsatisfied with the new Barbie dolls?
答案: D) Their body shapes have not changed much.
A)They do not reflect young girls’ aspirations.
B) They are not sold together with the original.
C)Their flat feet do not appeal to adolescents.
D) Their body shapes have not changed much.

Q11. Where will the new Barbie dolls be sold first?
答案: C) On the Internet.
A)In toy stores.
B)In shopping malls.
C)On the Internet.
D)At Barbie shops.


Passage 2

The earliest printed book we know today appeared in China in the year 868, and metal type was in use in Korea at the beginning of the fifteenth century, but it was in Germany around the year 1450 that a printing press using movable metal type was invented.
Capitalism turned printing from an invention into an industry. Right from the start, book printing and publish-ing were organized on capitalist lines. 'The biggest sixteenth- century printer, Plantin of Antwerp, had twenty-four printing presses and employed more than a hundred workers. Only a small fraction of the population was literate, but the pro-duction of books grew at an extraordinary speed. By 1500 some twenty million volumes had already been printed.
The immediate effect of printing was to increase the cir-culation of works that were already popular in the handwritten form, while less popular works went out of circulation. Publishers were interested only in books that would sell fairly quickly in sufficient numbers to cover the costs of production and make a profit. Thus, while printing enormously increased access to books by making cheap, high-volume production possible, it also reduced choice.
The great cultural impact of printing was that it facili-tated the growth of national languages. Most early books were printed in Latin, but the market for Latin was limited, and in its pursuit of larger markets the book trade soon produced translations into the national languages emerging at the time. Printing indeed played a key role in standardizing and stabilizing these lan-guages by fixing them in print, and producing dictionaries and grammar books.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Q12. What happened in Germany around the year of 1450?
答案: A) Movable metal type began to be used in printing.
A)Moveable metal type began to be used in printing.
B)Chinese printing technology was first introduced.
C)The earliest known book was published.
D)Metal type was imported from Korea.

Q13. What does the speaker say about the printer, Plantin of Antwerp?
答案: B) It was the biggest printer in the 16th century.
A)It had more than a hundred printing presses.
B)It was the biggest printer in the 16th century.
C)It helped the German people become literate.
D)It produced some 20 million volumes in total.

Q14. What was the immediate effect of printing?
答案: B) It boosted the circulation of popular works.
A)It pushed handwritten books out of circulation.
B)It boosted the circulation of popular works.
C)It make writing a very profitable career.
D)It provided readers with more choices.

Q15. What was the great cultural impact of printing?
答案: D) It promoted the growth of national languages.
A)It accelerated the extinction of the Latin language.
B)It standardized the publication of grammar books.
C)It turned translation into a welcome profession.
D)It promoted the growth of national languages.

解析:短文2主要讲述印刷机的传播。第12题,在公元868年中国已有第一本印刷成册的书籍,而德国却到1450年左右才发明铅字印刷机。16世纪最大的铅字印刷机,Plantin of Antwerp由24台印刷机组合而成,并需要雇用超过百名人员才能运作;对应第13题。而印刷术产生的立即影响就是将原来只能由手写的书籍文本更加普及并提升知名著作的发行量,对应第14题。除此之外,原来多用拉丁文撰写的书籍,也因为印刷术的普及,使出版商可以以更低的成本印制营利,出版成一般国家或地区人民能理解的语言,以赚取更大利润。因此印刷术对欧洲地区能代表各地国家语言的发展有着重大影响;对应第15题。

Section C

Passage 1

You dream about being a movie star. You'll live in a big house in Hollywood, go to the Oscars every year—and win! You'll be rich and famous. Wait a minute, you also hate having your photo taken, and you're very shy, so how could you ever become a movie star?
Choosing the right career can be hard. Many people graduate from school or college not knowing what to do with their lives, and get a job without really thinking about it. For some, things work out fine, but others often find themselves stuck in a job they hate. Your working life lasts an average of forty years, so it's important to find a job you like and feel enthusiastic about. Luckily, there are many ways you can get help to do this.
The Australian website, www.careersonline.com, compares choosing a career with going to the movies. Before you see a movie, you find out what films are showing. The site suggests you should do the same with your career—find out what jobs are available and what your options are. Next, decide which movie you like best; if you're not a romantic person, you won't want to see a love story. In other words, with your career, you should decide which job will suit your personality. Finally, decide how to get movie tickets, and find out where the theater is before you go. With your career, you need to find information about where you can work, and how to get a job in that profession.
So, how do you start? Begin by asking yourself some questions. Some jobs require you to have certain life experiences: Have you traveled overseas? Do you have any extra certificates besides your degree, such as a first aid license, for example? Your physical state and build can also affect which-jobs you can do. A person, for example, who is allergic to cats would probably never become an animal doctor. Flight attendants, firefighters, and police officers have to be over a certain height, and be physically fit. Your personality matters, too. Are you outgoing or shy? If you like working alone, a job that requires lots of teamwork might not suit you.
Choosing a career can take time and a lot of thought. However, when you know you can look forward to working in your dream job, you'll be glad you thought it through.

Questions 16-18 are based on the recording you have just heard.

Q16: What does the speaker say about many college graduates?
答案: D) They choose a job without thinking it through.
A) They get bored after working for a period of time.
B) They spend an average of one year finding a job.
C) They become stuck in the same job for decades.
D)They choose a job without thinking it through.

Q17: What does the Australian website suggest you do first to find a suitable job?
答案: B)Find out what job choices are available.
A) See if there will be chances for promotion.
B) Find out what job choices are available.
C) Watch a film about ways of job hunting.
D) Decide which job is most attractive to you.

Q18:What should you think about when you look for the right job according to the Australian website?
答案: A) The qualifications you have.
A) The qualifications you have.
B) The pay you are going to get.
C) The culture of your target company.
D) The work environment you will be in.


Passage 2

Kwanzaa is a cultural festival during which African-Americans celebrate and reflect upon their rich heritage as the products of two worlds. It begins December 26 and lasts for seven days.
Kwanzaa was founded in 1966 by Dr. Karenga, a college professor and African-American leader, who believed that a special holiday could help African-Americans meet their goals of building strong families, learning about their history, and creating a sense of unity.
After conducting extensive research in which he studied the festivals of many African groups of people, he decided that the new holiday should be a harvest or "first fruits" celebration, incorporating ideas from many different harvest traditions. Kwanzaa is a KiSwahili word meaning "the first fruits of the harvest."
The East African language of KiSwahili was chosen as the official language of Kwanzaa because it is a non-tribal language, spoken by a large portion of the African population. Also, its pronunciation is easy.
Kwanzaa is based on seven principles which are unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity and faith. One principle is highlighted each day of the holiday.
In preparation for the celebration, a straw mat is placed on the table, along with a candle holder with seven candles, one black, three red, and three green. The black candle represents the African-American people, the red is for their struggles, and the green represents their hopes for the future.
Other items placed on the table are a variety of fruit, ears of corns, gifts, and a communal unity cup for pouring and sharing drinks.
Each day of Kwanzaa, usually before the evening meal, family and friends gather around the table and someone lights a candle, beginning with the black. After that, candles are lit alternately from left to right. While the candle is being lit, a principle is recited; then each person present takes a turn to speak about the importance that principle has to himself or herself.
Next the ceremony focuses on remembering those who have died. A selected person pours water or juice from the unity cup into a bowl. That person then drinks from the cup and raises it high saying "Harambee" which means "Let's all pull together." All repeat "Harambee!" seven times and each person drinks from the cup. Then names of African-American leaders and heroes are called out, and everyone reflects upon the great things these people did. The ceremony is followed by a meal, and then singing and perhaps listening to African music.

Questions 19-22 are based on the recording you have just heard.

Q19: What does the speaker say about Kwanzaa?
答案: B) It is a cultural festival founded for African-Americans.
A) It is as important as Christmas for African-Americans.
B) It is a cultural festival founded for African-Americans.
C) It is an ancient festival celebrated by African-Americans.
D) It is a religious festival celebrated by African-Americans.

Q20: For what purpose did Dr. Karenga create this special holiday?
答案: C) To help African-Americans to realize their goals.
A) To urge African-Americans to do more for society.
B) To call on African-Americans to worship their gods.
C) To help African-Americans to realize their goals.
D) To remind African-Americans of their sufferings.

Q21: What does the word "Kwanzaa" mean?
答案: B) The first fruits of the harvest.
A) Faith in self-determination.
C) Unity and cooperative economics.
B) The first fruits of the harvest.
D) Creative work and achievement.

Q22: What did people do while each candle was being lit at the Kwanzaa celebration?
答案: A) They recite a principle.
A) They recite a principle.
C) They drink wind from the unity cup.
B) They take a solemn oath.
D) They call out their ancestors’ names.


Passage 3

The Mediterranean diet is based upon the eating patterns of traditional cultures in the Mediterranean region.
Several noted nutritionists and research projects have concluded that this diet is one of the most healthful in the world in terms of preventing such illnesses as heart disease and cancer, and increasing life expectancy.
The countries that have inspired the Mediterranean diet all surround the Mediterranean Sea. These cultures have eating habits that developed over thousands of years. In Europe, parts of Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and southern France adhere to principles of the Mediterranean diet, as do Morocco and Tunisia in North Africa. Parts of the Balkan region and Turkey follow the diet, as well as Middle Eastern countries like Lebanon and Syria. The Mediterranean region is warm and sunny, and produces large supplies of fresh fruits and vegetables almost year round that people eat many times a day. Wine, bread, olive oil, and nuts, are other staples of the region, and the Mediterranean Sea has historically yielded abundant quantities of fish.
International interest in the therapeutic qualities of the Mediterranean diet began back in the late 1950s, when medical researchers started to link the occurrence of heart disease with diet. Dr. Ancel Keys performed an epidemiological analysis of diets around the world. Entitled the Seven Countries Study, is considered one of the greatest epidemiological studies ever performed. In it, Keys gathered data on heart disease and its potential causes from nearly 13,000 men in Greece, Italy, Croatia, Serbia, Japan, Finland, the Netherlands, and the United States. The study was conducted over a period of decades. It concluded that the Mediterranean people in the study enjoyed some significant health advantages. The Mediterranean groups had lower mortality rates in all age brackets and from all causes, particularly from heart disease. The study also showed that the Mediterranean diet is as high or higher in fat than other diets, obtaining up to 40% of all its calories from fat. It has, however, different patterns of fat intake. Mediterranean cooking uses smaller amounts of saturated fat and higher amounts of unsaturated fat, mostly in the form of olive oil. Saturated fats are fats that are found principally in meat and dairy products, although some nuts and vegetable oils also contain them. Saturated fats are used by the body to make cholesterol, and high levels of cholesterol have since been directly related to heart disease.

Questions 23-25 are based on the recording you have just heard.

Q23. What has research concluded about the Mediterranean diet?
答案: A) It is one of the world’s most healthy diets.
A) It is one of the world’s most healthy diets.
B) It contains large amounts of dairy products.
C) It began to impact the world in recent years.
D) It consists mainly of various kinds of seafood.

Q24. What do we learn about the Seven Countries Study?
答案: C) It is regarded as one of the greatest researches of its kind.
A) It involved 13,000 researchers from Asia, Europe and America.
B) It was conducted in seven Mid-Eastern countries in the 1950s.
C) It is regarded as one of the greatest researches of its kind.
D) It has drawn the attention of medical doctors the world over.

Q25. What do we learn about the Mediterranean people from the Seven Countries Study?
答案: D) They have lower mortality rates.
A) They care much about their health.
C) They use little oil in cooking.
B) They eat foods with little fat.
D) They have lower mortality rates.


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